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Medical Terminology Glossary: [H]
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Haemorrhage The escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel, externally or internally
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) Death of a segment of heart muscle, which follows interruption of its blood supply. The infarction is usually confined to the left ventricle. The patient experiences sudden severe chest pain, which may spread to the arms and throat
Haustration Small sacs or pouches, created in this instance by longitudinal bands of muscle which are slightly shorter than the colon.
Heart Failure Pathological inability of one or both (systemic or pulmonary) sides of the heart to pump volumes of blood adequate for sedentary life.
Hematocrit The percentage of the volume of a blood sample occupied by cells.
Hematoma Localised collection of blood, usually clotted, within an organ, tissue or space.
Hematosalpinx Pathological accumulation of blood within a fallopian tube.
Hematuria, Gross Blood in the urine, evident to the naked eye.
Hematuria Blood in the urine.
Hemiproctectomy Removal of the upper half of the rectum.
Hemivertebra Usually wedge-shaped deformity of a segment of the spinal column, because of the failure of development of the right or left component.
Hemoclip Device placed on a blood-vessel to arrest surgical bleeding.
Hemodialysis Therapeutic simulation of kidney function by passing blood through channels of semipermeable membrane, which permit the removal of soluble waste products whilst retaining cells and larger molecules.
Hemoglobin The red blood pigment which carries oxygen in the blood.
Hemolysis Destruction of red blood cells.
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, ABO-Incompatible Destruction of red blood cells, with the production of hyperbilirubinemia and anemia, because of the presence in the newborn infant's circulation of maternal antibodies against paternal ABO-blood group proteins.
Hemopericardium Blood in the potential space between the inner walls of the collapsed-balloon like covering of the heart: it may interfere with the normal pumping mechanism of the chambers of the heart.
Hemoperitoneum Bleeding into the collapsed-balloon like inner lining of the abdomen or pelvis.
Hemophilus Influenzae A bacterial germ that commonly causes respiratory infections in pre-school children, and can cause serious infections including meningitis at any age, particularly in those who are not naturally- or artificially-immunised.
Hemorrhagic Resulting from bleeding.
Hemorrhoid Varicose vein of the anal canal.
Hemorrhoids, Internal Abnormally enlarged (dilated) veins of the anal canal, not visible outside of the anus.
Hemorrhoids Abnormally enlarged (dilated) veins of the anal canal.
Hemothorax Pathological presence of blood in the potential space between the membrane lining the outside of the lung and that lining the inside of the ribcage.
Heparin Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (HITT) A disease in which an idiosyncratic reaction to the blood-thinning medical Heparin causes pathological attachment of a large proportion of the circulating platelets to the walls of arteries and arterioles, leading to thrombosis and failure of the normal clotting mechanism of the blood.
Heparin A medication which quickly produces anticoagulation and which must be given by injection.
Hepatic Relating to the liver.
Hepaticojejunostomy, Roux-en-Y The surgical fashioning of a direct connection between hepatic duct and jejunum to drain bile directly from the liver when disease or injury has damaged the bile ducts.
Hepatitis B A virus infection of the liver, transmitted by blood- and blood-products.
Hernia, [strictly Para-]Umbilical Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the normally-restraining muscle tissues of the abdominal wall adjacent to the navel.
Hernia, Abdominal Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the normally-restraining muscle tissues of the abdominal wall.
Hernia, Diaphragmatic A pathological protrusion of abdominal organs through a defect in the diaphragm.
Hernia, Inguinal Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the normally-restraining tissues of the groin.
Hernia, Incisional The protrusion of an organ or tissue through an inadequately healed surgical scar, usually only the inner layers.
Hernia The protrusion of a part or a structure through the tissues normally containing it.
Hernial Sac The peritoneal envelope of a Hernia.
Herniation, of Disc Extrusion of the semisolid central nucleus pulposus through a defect in the containing annulus fibrosus of an intervertebral disc.
Herniorrhaphy Surgical repair of a hernia.
Herpessimplex Virus A micro-organism causing cold sores (typically type I) and genital herpes (type II) and rarely more serious infections, particularly of the brain (encephalitis).
Hiatus Hernia Rupture of part of the stomach through the passageway for the gullet (esophagus) through the diaphragm.
HIDA dimetHyl IminoDiacetic Acid is a dye used for diagnostic imaging of the gallbladder.
High Vaginal, of Swab Sampling from the upper vagina near the cervix.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) A type of fat in the blood, measured as cholesterol, which when pathologically decreased is associated with narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
High-grade Possessing histological features characteristic of pathologically aggressive malignancy.
Hilar Adenopathy Pathological enlargement of the lymphnodes deep in the centre of the chest, indicating probable inflammation or cancer of the lungs.
Hilum depression or slit-like opening in an organ where the nerves and vessels enter and leave.
HLA Human Lymphocyte Antigen.
Host An organism that is infected with or is fed upon by a parasitic or pathogenic organism (for example, a virus, WORM, fungus)
Homonymous Hemianop(s)ia Loss of the corresponding half of the visual field of each eye.
Howell-Jolly Bodies See
Human Papilloma Virus One of a family of viruses which cause skin and genital warts and, in this case, precancer and carcinoma of the cervix, anus, larynx (vocal cords) and lining of the nose.
Humerus Bone of the upper arm.
Hyaline Membrane Disease Disease of preterm infants in which immaturity of the lung causes deficiency of the naturally occuring detergent Surfactant, resulting in reduced compliance (elasticity) of the lungs and inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Hydronephrosis Pathological chronic enlargement of the collecting channels of a kidney, leading to compression and eventual destruction of kidney tissue, and diminishing kidney functionning.
Hydrosalpinx Pathological accumulation of fluid within a fallopian tube.
Hypaque A fluid opaque to xrays used for diagnostic imaging.
Hyperbaric At higher than atmospheric pressure.
Hyperbilirubinemia Increased blood levels of bilirubin.
Hypercholesterolemia Pathological increase in the concentration of the cholesterol components of the fats in the blood, both those that are thought to be causative of (typically Low Density Lipoprotein), and those that are protective (typically High Density Lipoprotein) against, atherosclerosis.
Hyperemia Increased blood flow, as in an area of inflammation.
Hyperextensibility, of Joints Pathologically increased range of movement, in this case because of insufficiency of normally restraining tissues.
Hyperkalemic Alkalosis Pathologically high potassium and bicarbonate in the body fluids, characteristically caused by repeated vomiting: disturbances of potassium concentration in the blood predispose to cardiac arrhythmia.
Hyperlipidemia Pathological increase in the concentration of fats in the blood.
Hyperosmolar Coma Prolonged unconsciousness resulting from the effects of increased concentration of salts dissolved in the blood on the cells of the brain.
Hyperparathyroidism Pathological overactivity of the 2 pairs of parathyroid glands, which regulate the metabolism of calcium.
Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary Pathological overactivity of the 2 pairs of parathyroid glands as a result of disturbance of calcium metabolism arising from disease of another organ .
Hyperplasia Enlargement due to increase in number of cells.
Hyperplasia Overgrowth or overdevelopment.
Hyperpyrexia Very high fever, at a level likely to cause tissue damage.
Hypertelorism Abnormally increased distance between the pupils of the eyes.
Hypertension The disease processes associated with persistently raised blood pressure.
Hypertrophic, of Gastritis Accompanied by pathological thickening of the lining of the stomach.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Noninflammatory disease of heart muscle, the fibres of which are pathologically enlarged.
Hypertrophic Enlarged in size, rather than in the number of components.
Hypertrophy Enlargement due to increase in size of cells.
Hypocalcemia Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypoechogenic Causing less than usual reflection of ultrasound waves.
Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar.
Hypokalemia Pathologically reduced blood levels of potassium.
Hyponatremia Pathologically decreased concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hypoperfusion Diminished blood-supply to tissues.
Hypoplasia Decreased growth (of a tissue or organ).
Hyporeflexia Diminished deep tendon reflex activity.
Hypospadias Developmental defect in the penis such that part of the urethra is open on the underside.
Hypotension Pathologically low blood pressure.
Hypothyroidism Underactive thyroid activity.
Hypotonia Reduced muscle tone, the resting resistance to passive movement by the examiner.
Hypoxemia Reduced amounts of oxygen in the (arterial) blood.
Hypoxia Pathologically reduced oxygen content of the blood.
Hysterectomy, Abdominal Surgical removal of the uterus by way of an abdominal incision, with (total) or without (subtotal) removal of the cervix; does not imply removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy).
Hysterectomy, Vaginal Surgical removal of the uterus by way of a vaginal rather than abdominal incision, with (total) or without (subtotal) removal of the cervix; the term does not imply removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy).
Hysterectomy, Radical Surgical removal of the uterus, upper vagina and tissues adjacent to the uterus; usually undertaken for carcinoma of the uterus.
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus, with (total) or without (subtotal) removal of the cervix; does not imply removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy).
Hysterosalpingogram Radiological imaging of the cavity of the uterus and internal architecture of the fallopian tubes after injection of a dye opaque to xrays into the cervix.
Hysteroscopy Visualisation of the cavity of the uterus using a lighted magnifying instrument.