Medical Terminology Glossary: [D]
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Deafness, Sensorineural Hearing loss due to disease or damage of the hearing nerve-endings in the inner ear and/or the nerves of hearing.
Debridement Removal of devitalised tissue and foreign material from a wound or injured part.
Deceleration (of Fetal Heart Rate) Significant reduction, as measured by listening (ausculation) or continuous electronic fetal monitoring.
Decidua, Degenerate Fragments of internal lining of the currently or recently pregnant uterus, which are in process of destruction and reabsorption/shedding.
Decompression, Surgical Surgery performed to relieve the pressure compromising function of an organ.
Decortication Surgical removal of scar tissue formed round a longstanding empyema.
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) The formation or occurence of blood clot in the inner veins of the leg, thigh or pelvic cavity.
Degenerative Arthritis Wearing of joint surfaces from overuse or aging, = osteoarthritis or osteoarthrosis.
Degenerative Disc Disease The pathological process by which an intervertebral disc becomes progressively disrupted and fails in its functions.Degenerative Arthritis Wearing of joint surfaces from overuse or aging, = osteoarthritis or osteoarthrosis.
Degenerative Joint Disease Pathological wearing changes in joints, synonymous with osteoarthrosis or spondylosis.
Dehiscence Pathological opening-up or separation of soft-tissue components, particularly a surgical suture line.
Delta Wave EEG ("brain") wave with a frequency of 0.5-3 per second.
Dementia Loss of cognitive and intellectual functions without impaired consciousness or perception.
Demerol A narcotic painkiller.
Demyelination Pathological destruction of the "insulating" myelin coating most nerve cells.
Denervation Pathological loss of nerve supply.
Density, on Radiograph Shadow corresponding to tissue opaque to xrays.Depression A psychological disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts or an attempt to commit suicide.
Depression, Reactive Clinical depression that is considered to have arisen from life events.
Depressive Episode, Major Persistently depressed mood for a minimum of 2 weeks, accompanied by at least 4 of the specified disturbances of bodily and mental functioning.
Depressive Disorder, Major Occurrence of one or more Major Depressive Episodes.
Dermatome Area of skin whose sensation is supplied by one nerve root.
Desaturation Pathological reduction in the amount of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis (blue discolouration of the skin and/or mucous membranes).
Dextrose Another term for glucose, the simple sugar which results from the complete digestion of many carbohydrates.
Diabetes (Mellitus), Insulin Dependent A disorder of metabolism in which carbohydrate utilisation is reduced, and utilisation of protein and fat enhanced, because of a deficiency of production of the hormone insulin.
Diabetes (Mellitus) A disorder of metabolism in which carbohydrate utilisation is reduced, and utilisation of protein and fat enhanced, because of an absolute or relative deficiency of metabolically-active insulin.
Diabetic Neuropathy A combined type of nerve damage,involving sensory and motor components, typically symmetrical and involving autonomic nerves (serving the blood vessels and internal organs), seen frequently in older diabetic patients.
Diabetic Keto Acidosis An illness in which increased acidity of the blood is caused by the breakdown products (ketones) of fat metabolism, because of a shortage of Insulin.
Diagnosis, Working While accumulating sufficient information on which to make a definitive diagnosis, the most likely and safest diagnosis on which to manage the condition.
Diagnosis A name designating the nature of a disease process.
Diagnostic Imaging The inclusive term for all methods of visualising the body's internal structure using electromagnetic waves.
Diagnostic Ultrasound The use of the differential reflection of waves with frequencies (ranging from 1.6 to about 10 MHz) beyond the range of human hearing to produce images of the uterus and fetus for medical diagnostic purposes; the probe generating and receiving the ultrasound waves is placed on the abdomen.
Diagnostic Ultrasound, Translabial (Vaginal)(Obstetric) The use of the differential reflection of waves with frequencies (ranging from 1.6 to about 10 MHz) beyond the range of human hearing to produce images of the uterus and fetus for medical diagnostic purposes; the probe generating and receiving the ultrasound waves is placed in the upper vagina.
Dialysate Fluid which exchanges substances with the blood during dialysis.
Dialysis Therapeutic simulation of kidney function resulting in the removal of soluble waste products whilst retaining cells and larger molecules.
Diaphragm Dome-shaped sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Diathermy Surgical application of high-frequency current, ultrasound or microwaves to cauterise tissue.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) A synthetic "female" hormone.
Differential Diagnosis List of possible diagnoses.
Differential Related to White Blood cell Count, the proportions of the different varieties.
Differentiated, Well- to Moderately- Referring to malignancy, possessing histological characteristics of the originating tissues - usually suggesting less pathological aggression, as in this case.
Differentiated, Well- Referring to malignancy, possessing histological characteristics of the originating tissues - usually suggesting less pathological aggression.
Dilatation and Curettage, Suction Enlarging the internal diameter of the cervix using progressive larger metal rods, then surgically removing any contents and part or all of the lining of the uterus for therapeutic purposes by means of a suction device.
Dilatation of the Cervix The progressive opening of the neck of the uterus, from 1 to 10 cm (Full Dilatation)physiologically during labour, or surgically to gain access to the contents of the uterine cavity.
Dilatation and Curettage (D & C) Enlarging the internal diameter of the cervix using progressive larger metal rods, then surgically removing any contents and part or all of the lining of the uterus for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes.
Dilatation, of an orifice Surgical enlargement, usually by stretching.
Dilatation and Curettage, Sharp Enlarging the internal diameter of the cervix using progressive larger metal rods, then surgically removing any contents and part or all of the lining of the uterus for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes using a sharp cutting instrument.
Dilatation Increase in the calibre of a hollow organ.
Dilator Surgical instrument or device for increasing the internal diameter of a tubular organ or orifice.
Direct, of Inguinal Hernia Involving the abdominal wall between the deep epigastric artery and the edge of the rectus muscle.
Discectomy Removal of an Intervertebral Disc.
Discography Radiographic visualisation of the spaces within an intervertebral disc after the direct injection of a dye opaque to xray.
Disinfection Destroy or render harmless pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes in or on an inert substance.
Dislocation Loss of alignment of bones forming a joint.
Displaced, of Fracture Significantly removed from normal anatomical relationships to prejudice natural healing without surgical correction.
Dissection (of an Aneurysm) A condition in which blood enters the wall of an artery, separating and damaging the layers of the wall, and causing blockage of the channel.
Dissection Identification, isolation and surgical removal.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Widespread clotting within bloodvessels, as a result of pathological disturbance of the normal clotting mechanisms.
Distal Away from the centre of the body.
Diuretic A substance which increases the kidneys' elimination of water from the body.Diverticula A sack or pouch formed at weak points in the alimentary tract.
Divarication Pathological simple separation of normal joined parts.
Diverticulum A pouch or sac opening from a tubular organ, particularly the bowel or bladder.
Dopamine A chemical transmitter, naturally-occuring in nerves, and used in synthetic form to sustain blood-pressure.
Dorsal The back of a body part, with reference to the standard anatomical convention.
Dorsalis Pedis Artery An artery on the upper surface of the foot at which pulsation can normally be felt with relative ease.
Double Contrast, of Upper GastroIntestinal Series Series of radiographs taken after secondary replacement of the xray-opaque dye with air, to delineate the configuration of the lining of the gullet (esophagus), stomach and upper small bowel.
Double Setup Vaginal examination of a woman with a viable fetus by an obstetrician, after full preparation for immediate Lower Uterine Segment Cesarian Section, with the option of artificial rupture of membranes if placenta previa is not found.
Drain Surgical device for continuously emptying fluid from a cavity or wound.
Drainage Procedure One of the forms of surgery designed to encourage physiological emptying of the stomach into the duodenum.
Duct Papilloma Benign tumour arising in the milk duct of a breast.
Duct Tubular structure through which pass fluids produced by the body.
Duodenal ulceration Localised defect in the inner lining of the first part of the small bowel, which typically causes pain, and which may be complicated by bleeding into the bowel, or rupture (perforation) of the bowel.
Duodenitis Inflammation of the first part of the small bowel.
Duodenostomy Surgically created opening into the first part of the small bowel through the abdominal wall.
Duodenum The first part of the small bowel, connecting the stomach to the jejunum, and containing the ampulla of Vater.
Dura Mater The thickest, fibrous and outermost of the three membranes lining the brain and spinal cord.
Dysarthria Difficulty with the movements of speech.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding Irregular or heavy bleeding from the uterus originating from hormonal imbalance in contrast with a localised disease process.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding Abnormal bleeding from the uterus, presumed to be caused by hormonal disturbance, in the absence of demonstrable anatomical abnormality of the uterus.
Dysfunctional Colon A pathological abnormality of functioning of the large bowel without demonstrable abnormality on microscopic examination.
Dyskinesia Disordered movement.
Dyspareunia Pain during sexual intercourse, conventionally penis-vagina intercourse.
Dysplasia, Severe Disordered or abnormal tissue development, severe often signifying a precancerous grade.
Dysplasia Disordered or abnormal tissue development.
Dyspnea Difficulty breathing.Dyssynergia, Bladder Neck Loss of the coordination whereby relaxation of the muscles of the outlet accompanies contraction of the urinary bladder, and outlet contraction is re-established after voiding.
Dystocia Difficult delivery.
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