Medical Terminology Glossary: [E]
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Early-onset, of Group B b-Hemolytic Streptococcal Infection Occurring before 1 week of age.Early Deceleration (of Fetal Heart Rate) Deceleration occurring at or shortly after the maximum contraction of the uterus and having no serious significance.
Ecchymosis Diffuse bruising.
Echocardiography The use of diagnostic ultrasound (qv) to image the size, motion and composition of components of the heart.
Eclampsia Pre-eclampsia that is complicated by one or more convulsions.
Ectasia, Corneal (Keratoectasia) Bulging forward of the cornea.
Ectopic Away from its normal location in time or space.
Edema Swelling of tissues because of retention of excess body fluid.
Effacement, of Cervix During labour, the degree of flattening of the normally protruding cervix.
Effusion Bodily fluid pathologically accumulated.
Ejection Fraction The proportion of the total (end-diastolic) volume of blood which is expelled from the ventricle during contraction, normally more than 0.67 in health.
ElectroCardioGraphy (ECG) The electronic display and/or graphical recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
Electrodiagnostic Tests which measure the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) Electronic recording of the various frequency of "brainwaves" (named by the first 4 greek letters) by means of electrodes placed on the scalp, and interpretation of the patterns.
Electrogalvanic Stimulation Therapy Stimulation of a muscle by continuous direct current for the purpose of overcoming its disordered activity.
Electrolytes Salts in a body fluid, by convention restricted to sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate.
Electromyography (EMG) A method of recording electrical events in an active muscle.
Electronystagmography Electronic monitoring of eye-movements under test conditions.
Electrophysiology Any method of recording electrical events in living organisms.
Embolectomy The surgical removal of blood clot from arteries or veins.
Embolism The pathological or therapeutic dissemination through blood vessels and lodgment of particulate substances, typically blood clot, in remote locations, compromising the blood supply of the tissues served by those blood vessels.
-emia In the blood.
Emphysema(Pulmonary) Pathological enlargement, and reduction in number, of the smallest airspaces of the lung (alveoli), accompanied by destruction of their walls and diminution of gas-exchange.
Empyema Pus in the pleural cavity.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy, Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury to the brain from prolonged deprivation of oxygen/blood.
Encephalopathy Disorder of the brain, characteristically causing abnormalities of movement and consciousness.
End-stage The late, fully developed phase of a disease.
End-to-End With the channel in direct continuity, as distinct from creating an end-to-side junction.
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of the atheromatous plaques and inner linings of an artery, leaving a smooth surface.
Endocervical Relating to the inner lining of the cervix.
Endocervicitis Inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix or neck of the uterus.
Endoclips Endoscopic devices for occluding hollow tubes (strictly EndoClip is the proprietary name of 1 variety, but the term is used generically).
Endometrial Dysplasia Abnormal development of the inner lining of the uterus, which may be a precancerous state.
Endometrial Hyperplasia Pathological overgrowth of the (menstrual) lining of the uterus.
Endometrial Biopsy Removal of a portion of tissue of endometrium for pathological examination can be undertaken as an office procedure, without anesthesia, because the cervix, through which the biopsy instrument passes, and the endometrium are relatively devoid of pain-sensitive nerves.
Endometrial Cultures Samples of body fluid taken from the lining of the uterus to confirm or refute bacterial infection.
Endometriosis Pathological occurence of tissue from the lining of the uterus at other bodily locations.
Endometritis Inflammation of the lining of the uterus.
Endometrium Inner lining of the uterus, the innermost layers of which are shed during menstruation.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) Radiographic imaging of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct after the introduction of radio-opaque dye into the ampulla of Vater through an instrument (endoscope) passed down the throat, gullet, and stomach into the duodenum.
Endoscopy Use of lighted hollow instruments introduced into hollow organ or body cavity for diagnostic and/or surgical purposes.
Endotracheal Through the windpipe, by way of the largynx (voicebox).
Enteritis Inflammation of the bowel.
Enterococcus Bacterium that can cause life-threatening generalised infection, and that is normally found in the bowel, where it is harmless.
Enterocutaneous Between bowel and skin surface.
Enteroenterostomy Surgical communication between two sections of bowel.
Enterotomy Surgical penetration of the wall of the bowel.
Entrapment Neuropathy Constriction or distortion of a nerve, usually because of tethering in scar tissue.
Enzyme Biological catalyst of chemical reactions.
Epicanthus or Epicanthic Folds A redundant vertical fold of skin adjacent to the nose, at the junction of upper and lower eyelids.
Epidermal Relating to the (outermost layers of the) skin.
Epididymectomy Surgical removal of the epididymis.
Epididymis Sperm reservoir and maturing apparatus at the back of the testis.
Epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis.
Epidural Outside the outermost and thickest (dura) of the three membranes lining the brain and spinal cord.
Epigastric Pertaining to, or in the region of, the central upper abdomen, over the stomach.
Epiglottic Pertaining to the flap-valve guarding the entrance to the windpipe.
Epineural On the outside of a nerve trunk.
Episiotomy Surgical cut in the tissues of the back of the vagina and perineum to expedite delivery or prevent more extensive laceration.
Epithelium The purely cellular, blood-vessel free lining of all body surfaces.
Erb's Palsy Paralysis of the muscles of the upper arm and shoulder girdle, resulting from injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or cervical nerve roots 5 and 6.
Erectile Dysfunction "Impotence", inability to achieve or sustain erection adequate for vaginal intercourse.
Erythema Redness arising from increased blood-supply.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) The number of millimeters of settling of cells occuring in a standard 10cm column of blood in the first hour, a sensitive but nonspecific marker of widespread bodily inflammation.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Visualisation of the internal lining of the gullet, stomach and first part of the small bowel via a lighted instrument introduced through the mouth.
Esophagostomy Surgically created opening from the outside of the body into the gullet, for purposes of feeding or drainage.
Estrogen Replacement Therapy Administration of artificial "female" sex hormones for therapeutic or preventative purposes.
Estrogen One of the two major "female" sex hormones, blood levels of which fluctuate during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
Ewing's Sarcoma (Tumour) A malignant neoplasm which occurs usually before the age of 20 years amd involves bones of the extremities.
Excessive Weight Gain in Pregnancy Variously more than 20kg or more than 25% of nonpregnant weight.
Excision, Wide Surgical removal for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes, leaving a substantial margin of healthy, normal tissue.
Excision Surgical removal for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes.
Exenteration Radical removal of the contents of a body cavity, in this case the pelvis.
Exenteration Removal of all the contents of a cavity, in this case the eye socket.
Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) [or Confinement(EDC)] 280 days after the Last Normal Menstrual Period (LNMP), plus or minus any variance from 28 days in menstrual cycle length.
Exsanguination The state of being drained of blood
Extension (of the neck) Bending backwards.
Extension Bending backwards.
Extensor A muscle which causes extension (as distinct from flexion) of a joint, generally meaning alignment of the components, or movement of the distal component towards the back of the body.
External Fixation Rigid maintenance of the fragments of a fracture by means of a frame outside the body.
Extrahepatic Outside the liver
Extravasation Spread into the surrounding tissues of fluid from, or intended for, a blood-vessel.
Extreme Prematurity Marginally viable birth before 28 weeks estimated gestation.
Extrusion Outward displacement of the contents of an organ.E[scherichia] Coli A bowel germ which may, under certain circumstances, cause serious infections.
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