Medical Terminology Glossary: [I]
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Iatrogenic Unintended and unwanted result of treatment.
Idiopathic Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS, = Hyaline Membrane Disease, HMD) In newborn infants, particularly those who are born preterm or of diabetic mothers, a disease caused by temporary deficiency of the detergent surfactant and resulting in compromised lung function.
Ileo-cecal Valve Junction between the last part (jejunum) of the small bowel and the first part (cecum) of the large bowel.
Ileorectostomy Surgically created connection between the lower small bowel and rectum.
Ileostomy, Defunctioning Loop Ileostomy with intact connection to the lower bowel.
Ileostomy Surgically created opening of the ileum (small bowel) on to the abdominal wall to divert evacuation of bowel contents.
Ileum The third part, arbitrarily the lower three-fifths, of the small bowel, connecting the jejunum with the first part (cecum) of the large bowel at the ileo-cecal junction or valve.
Ileus, Paralytic Nonmechanical obstruction of the bowel from paralysis of the bowel wall, usually as a result of localized or generalised peritonitis or shock but may occur unpredictably.
Iliac Fossa Part of the lower abdominal bounded internally by the concavity of the ala (wing) of the ilium of the bony pelvis.
Iliac Crest Convex upper border of the major bone (Ilium) of the pelvis, forming the lower border of the loin.
Iliac Artery, External One of two main branches of the paired common iliac artery (the termination of the abdominal aorta), supplying oxygen-rich blood to the thigh and leg.
Iliopsoas Combination muscle bridging the inner pelvis and thigh bone, and effecting (forward) flexion of the hip-joint.
Immune Competence Ability to recruit physiological mechanisms for neutralising foreign protein, notably of micro-organisms and malignant neoplasms.Immune Compromise A condition in which the immune system is not functioning normally.
Immune System The aggregate of body tissues concerned with defence against substances foreign to the body.
Immunosuppressant Preventing or interfering with immune response.
Imperforate Anus Congenital absence of the anal opening because of the presence of a membrane, or because of failure of development of the anal canal.
Implant Bleed Bleeding from the attachment of the placenta to the uterus.
In Situ Within a bounding membrane.
In Vitro Fertilisation Addition of sperm to egg outside the body.
Incise Surgically cut into.
Incision and Drainage Surgical breaching of a pathological collection of fluid and removal of that fluid, for therapeutic purposes.
Inclusion (Cyst) Containing foreign or out-of-place material.
Incomplete Abortion Spontaneous miscarriage of a pregnancy in which some tissues, usually placenta and/or membranes, remain in the uterus, causing continuing bleeding and a potential for infection.
Indirect, of Inguinal Hernia Involving internal inguinal ring and passing into the inguinal canal.
Indium A metallic element, a radioactive isotope of which is used in diagnostic imaging.Intestinal Bypass Surgically-formed shortcircuit of a section of bowel.
Indrawing Pathological pulling in of the soft tissues between the ribs, caused by obstruction to some part of the airway.
Induction of Labour Artificial provocation of labour by medical or surgical manipulation for therapeutic or preventative purposes.
Indurated Hard to the touch.
Induration Palpable hardness.
Infant of Diabetic Mother Having the pathological characteristics resulting from inadequately controlled gestational diabetes.
Infarct or Infarction Permanent damage to tissue or organ from interruption of its blood supply.
Inferior Mesenteric Artery The principal blood vessel supplying oxygen-rich blood to the large bowel beyond the hepatic flexure.
Inferior In or towards the lower part of an organ.Infertility Inability in a woman to conceive or in a man to induce conception.Female infertility may be due to failure to ovulate, to obstruction of the Fallopian tubes or to disease of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). Causes of male infertility include decreased numbers or motility of spermatozoa (oligospermia) and total absence of sperm (azoospermia) Inferior Mesenteric Artery The principal blood vessel supplying oxygen-rich blood to the large bowel beyond the hepatic flexure.
Infiltrate (Noun) Presence of migrating cells within a tissue.
Infiltrate (Verb) Introduce medication, typically local anesthetic, into an area of tissue.
Infiltration Introduction or spread of a fluid into tissues.
Inflammatory Debris Damaged tissue and tissue-products resulting from inflammation (typically infection) rather than other pathological processes.
Infusion Continuous administration of a fluid into a blood-vessel.
Inguinal Ligament Fibrous band passing from bony prominences in the groin, lying at or above the crease of the groin, and forming a bridge under which major vessels and nerves pass into the thigh.
Injected Having prominent bloodvessels.
Innervation Nerve supply.
Inotrope Substance which increases the power of contraction of heart muscle.
Inspiration Breathing in.
Insufficiency As applied to the posterior cruciate ligament, stretching or complete tearing, as evidenced by malfunction on clinical testing.
Intercostal Between the ribs.
Interferon Alpha (or Alfa) An antiviral agent, naturally produced by White Blood Cells and artificially produced for therapy.
Interloop Between loops, usually of intestines.
Intermenstrual Between menstrual periods.
Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation Artificial replacement of natural breathing by a mechanical substitute.
Internal Iliac (Lymphnodes) Along the main bloodvessel carrying oxygen-rich blood to the pelvic organs.
Internal Capsule A structure at the base of each cerebral hemisphere containing interconnecting neurons or nerve-cells.
Interphalangeal Between the bones of fingers or toes.
Interrupted (Sutures) Disconnected stitches.
Interval, of Appendectomy Delayed until after the appendicitis or appendiceal abscess has resolved.
Intervertebral Disc A fibrous gasket (annulus fibrosus) containing a semisolid core (nucleus pulposus) between adjacent vertebral bodies, the segments of the rod of bone at the front of the spinal column.
Intimal Flap A protrusion of the innermost layer of the wall into the channel of an artery; such a protrusion may interrupt the smooth flow of blood, and thereby compromise the blood-supply or encourage formation of a thrombus or clot.
Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) The pressure within the skull, cavity of the brain.Intraoperative During surgery.
Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD or IUD) A prosthesis inserted into the uterine cavity to prevent implantation of the fertilised egg, probably by irritation of the lining.
Intra-abdominal bleeding Synonymous with hemoperitoneum.
Intra-articular Within or into a joint.
Intracardiac Directly into the heart, in distinction from via blood vessels.
Intracerebral Within one or both of the 2 major hemispherical components of the brain, which serve the "higher" mental functions.
Intracervical Within the canal of the cervix.
Intracranial Hemorrhage Bleeding into the main cavity of the skull, causing varying degrees and patterns of brain-damage.
Intrahepatic Within the liver.
Intramuscular Within or into a muscle.
Intrapartum During labour.
Intraperitoneal Within the peritoneum.
Intrathecal Into the fluid( cerebrospinal fluid)-filled cavity between the brain and spinal cord and the surrounding membranes.
Intrauterine Within the cavity of the uterus.
Intravenous Pyelography (IVP) Radiographic imaging of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder after injection into a vein of dye opaque to xrays and concentrated in the kidney.
Intravenous Within or into a vein.
Intraventricular Into the collection of fluid-containing cavities in the deeper regions of the brain.
Intubate Therapeutic or diagnostic placement of a tube in a hollow organ, typically into the trachea (windpipe) through the mouth or nose.
Intubation Placement of a large calibre plastic tube, conventionally into the windpipe for purposes of artificial or assisted ventilation, but also into other hollow organs.
Intussusception The infolding of one segment of the intestine within another.
Invaginate Ensheathe, infold, or insert a structure within itself or another.
Invasion Anatomical pathology terminology for crossing planes (boundaries) between tissues.
Irrigate Wash out a wound or operative field with a cleansing fluid.
Irrigation Repeated flushing of a cavity or lesion to minimise local infection.
Irrigation Washing with antimicrobial or antiseptic fluid of a cavity or pathological connection, to expedite healing.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome A condition in which there is a tendency to overactivity of the bowel emptying activity, accompanied by abdominal pain and diarrhea; the cause of the condition is unknown but psychological and allergic factors are generally believed to play a role.
Irritation, of Nerve Root Intermittent mild pressure which gives rise to symptoms but no loss of function.
Ischemia Pathological reduction or absence of blood supply.Islets of Langerhans Tissue in the pancreas specialised for producing insulin.
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